Interstate 69 currently consists as a disconnected route along a 1,660-mile corridor.12 The original segment stretches northward from Indiana to Michigan. Additional sections are posted in southeast Texas, northern Mississippi and Memphis, Tennessee, western Kentucky and southwestern Indiana. The long range goal is to unite all of the separate sections into a seamless corridor linking Canada with Mexico.
Interstate 69 connects the cities of Indianapolis, Lansing, Flint and Port Huron within the Great Lakes region. The freeway begins at the Indianapolis Beltway (Interstate 465) and connects the capital city with Muncie, Fort Wayne and Angola in northeastern Indiana. Through Fort Wayne, I-69 passes west of Downtown while a beltway, Interstate 469, encircles the Summit City to the east as both a commuter route and connection to the Fort to Port Corridor, U.S. 24 leading east to Toledo, Ohio. Also in Fort Wayne, I-69 overtakes the former route of U.S. 27 north to Lansing, Michigan.
Crossing into the Great Lakes State, Interstate 69 heads northerly to Marshall and a junction with Interstate 94 before bending eastward toward the capital city of Lansing. Business loops along the way serve communities bypassed along old U.S. 27. Once in the Lansing area, I-69 changes directions: A sign once indicated that I-69 north becomes I-69 east (this sign was removed by 2011). Beyond Lansing and the overlap with Interstate 96, I-69 crosses Interstate 75 at a nearly 90 degree angle within the city of Flint and then meets Interstate 475. The freeway returns to rural settings east of Flint en route to Lapeer and Port Huron. Once in Port Huron, Interstates 69 and 94 meet for a second time and combine eastward to the Blue Water Bridge to Sarnia, Ontario.
The first section south of the original Indiana to Michigan route to be signed as Interstate 69 was the 14.7-mile stretch between U.S. 61 near Tunica and Interstate 55 by Hernando, Mississippi. This route generally serves as a connector for through traffic heading south to U.S. 61 and its casinos and I-55 north into Memphis, Tennessee. A subsequent extension of I-69 made in 2008 extended the route along side I-55 north into Memphis.
Main guide: Interstate 69 Mississippi
Work in 2009 added 1.77 miles of Interstate 69 to southwestern Indiana. This short stretch tied into the cloverleaf interchange between I-64 and I-164. It was later lengthened northeast by 67 miles to U.S. 231 in 2012. By 2013, 20 miles of I-164 were redesignated as the southernmost alignment of I-69 in the Hoosier State. Section 4 of I-69 followed, with 27 more miles of I-69 opened between Crane and Bloomington in December 2015.
Three parkways in Kentucky were incorporated into the route of Interstate 69, starting with the Western Kentucky Parkway between Eddyville and Nortonville in 2011, and the Pennyrile and Purchase Parkways in 2015. I-69 also shares a 17-mile overlap with Interstate 24.
Additional stretches of Interstate 69 were added following the 2012 legislation Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) stating that
routes can be designated as part of the Interstate system if the route or a segment of the route meets current Interstate design standards and connects to, or is planned to connect to, an existing Interstate within 25 years.
This meant that sections of freeway that will eventually become part of a seamless Interstate 69 may receive shielding in advance, even if they are disconnected from the rest of the designated mainline.
Through southeastern Texas, IH 69 overlays U.S. 59 north from Rosenberg to the Montgomery / Liberty County line. These stretches were signed over the span of three years between 2012 and 2015. They join shorter segments of the three IH 69 branch routes in South Texas. IH 69E, a 6.2-mile freeway between SH 44 and IH 37 near Corpus Christi was designated in 2011 initially as just IH 69. It was renumbered as IH 69E in 2013 when IH 69C and IH 69E in the Rio Grande Valley were dedicated. IH 69W appeared in 2014 when the FHWA approved a 1.4-mile stretch of Loop 20 in Laredo as an Interstate highway.
High Priority Corridor
Interstate 69 from Texas northeast to Michigan in its entirety is part of High Priority Corridor 18: NAFTA Superhighway. The section within Texas is also part of High Priority Corridor 20: U.S. 59 from Laredo to Texarkana.
Parallel U.S. Routes
The existing section of Interstate 69 northeast of Indianapolis largely does not follow any historic U.S. route, with the exception of the stretch between Fort Wayne and Lansing. This stretch was part of former U.S. 27.
When originally planned, Interstate 69 was proposed to run only between Indianapolis and Marshall, Michigan (I-94). The route was formally extended by AASHTO on June 23, 1969 north to Lansing and east to I-75 at Flint. Within Indianapolis, I-69 was proposed to continue southwest into Downtown along the Northeast Freeway. The planned route followed an alignment along former Indiana State Road 37 (now Binford Boulevard) southwest from I-465 to the North Split interchange of Interstates 65 and 70. This plan was later cut back to entail just a spur southwest to Binford Boulevard proposed as Interstate 165 before being dropped altogether.
Interstate 69 ended at I-75 in Flint until November 10, 1973, when AASHTO approved a short extension of the route east to Interstate 475. This replaced portions of the M-21 and M-78 freeway, which opened from Saginaw Street in Flint east to Center Road on December 21, 1971. Costing $22.1-million, the 2.5-mile segment in Flint linked two sections of freeway from M-52 near Perry to M-24 at Lapeer. It included the second level of the four-level stack interchange with I-475.15
Additional freeway for I-69 completed in 1972 included a 12-mile section of I-69 between Olivet and Charlotte. The 37-mile stretch from Lapeer east to Wadhams was scheduled for construction after 1974.15 I-69 was extended further east over M-21 to I-94 at Port Huron and along I-94 to the Blue Water Bridge and international border formally on October 1, 1983 by AASHTO. The last section of Interstate 69 to open in the state was the stretch from Charlotte to Lansing in 1992. This replaced the route of U.S. 27.4
Planned as a 1,250-mile extension southwest to Laredo, Texas, from Indianapolis southwest through Evansville, Memphis, Shreveport and Houston, Interstate 69 is part of High Priority Corridors 18 and 20. These High Priority Corridors are in turn subdivided into “segments” for ease of reference in various environmental and planning documents. For additional historical information, visit Chris Lawrence’s I-69 Info.com web page.
The entire corridor is described on the Alliance for I-69 Texas web site. Interstate 69 splits into three branches so it can serve the border areas near Laredo and near Brownsville:
- Victoria to Laredo via U.S. 59 (Interstate 69W)
- Rio Grande Valley/McAllen via U.S. 281 (Interstate 69C)
- Rio Grande Valley/Brownsville via U.S. 77 (Interstate 69E)
IH69 began in Texas as a 6.2 mile route along side U.S. 77 between SH 44 at Robstown and IH 37 at Corpus Christi, with an official dedication on December 5, 2011. This portion was reclassified as IH 69E at the May 5, 2013 Route Numbering Committee meeting of AASHTO, because of the branch split of IH 69 south from Victoria.
Other branch route sections of IH 69 were signed starting on July 15, 2013. Included is IH 69E, which overlays a stretch of U.S. 77 from Brownsville to Raymondville; IH 69C, which superseded 18.0 miles of U.S. 281 between Pharr and Edinburg and IH 2, which overlaps with U.S. 83 and connects IH 69C and IH 69E in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. 73 miles of State Highway 44, from U.S. 59 at Freer to SH 358 in Corpus Christi, became a Congressionally Designated I-69 High Priority Corridor as part of the FAST Act signed into law on December 4, 2015. 5.8 miles of SH 44 by Corpus Christi International Airport (CRP) are already built to interstate standards.14
North from the merge of IH 69E and IH 69C near Victoria to Houston, IH 69 will directly overlay U.S. 59 (Segment 20, from Victoria to SH 99). Through Houston, IH 69 runs concurrent with U.S. 59 (Segment 19) while SH 99, the Grand Parkway, provides a tolled bypass and possible branch of IH 69. Work to upgrade U.S. 59 to Interstate standards started in 2015 between County Road 227 in Wharton County and Spur 10 in Fort Bend County.10
The next section of freeway beyond Robstown in Texas formally reclassified as IH 69 was the 35-mile stretch of U.S. 59 from IH 610 north to the Montgomery and Liberty County line. Signs for IH 69 began to appear along that roadway in September 2012. Additional stretches of IH 69 were added to U.S. 59 from near Rosenburg northeast to the west loop of IH 610 near Bellaire at Houston. The 11-mile portion within the beltway was approved as IH 69 by the Texas Transportation Commission on March 26, 2015. Sign installation within Loop 610 started in April 2015 at a cost of about $100,000.10,11
IH 69 continues along U.S. 59 to depart Houston northward toward Cleveland (Segment 18 – from SH 99 to Lufkin). IH 69 will intersect U.S. 69 around Lufkin, a configuration that may result in some confusion. Northeast from there, IH 69 will angle to Nacogdoches via Segment 17, then continue to Carthage and Panola via Segment 16. Project development for IH 69 in Nacogdoches County identifies a relief route on the west side of the city and reconstruction of 6.75 miles of U.S. 59 leading south from there.7
A spur freeway (Segment 29), designated Interstate 369, is proposed to follow U.S. 59 north past Carthage to Texarkana, while IH 69 will turn east into Louisiana (via Segment 16 – Nacogdoches to Stonewall, Louisiana and Segment 15). Approved by AASHTO on November 15, 2012, IH 369 consists of a 4.2 mile spur along the U.S. 59 freeway, south from IH 30 on the west side of Texarkana to FM 93 and SL 151. Further south in Angelina County, a relief route east of Lufkin and Diboll was identified for IH 369, but is currently unfunded.7
North End – Port Huron, MI
South End – Indianapolis, IN
Branch Routes – 6
Total Mileage – 721.57
Texas – 110.30 (74.68**)
Cities – Corpus Christi, Houston, Humble, Stafford, Sugar Land
Mississippi – 23.90
Cities – Hernando
- Junctions –
Tennessee – 14.00#
Cities – Memphis
- Junctions – Future
Kentucky – 80.60
Cities – Princeton
- Junctions –
Indiana – 294.47
Cities – Evansville, Bloomington, Indianapolis, Anderson, Muncie, Fort Wayne
Michigan – 198.30*
Cities – Coldwater, Battle Creek, Lansing, Flint, Port Huron
Source: December 31, 2018 Interstate Route Log and Finders List
* – 5.20 miles on I-96, # – 9.20 miles on I-55, ## – 14.00 miles on I-55, I-240 and I-40.
** – TxDot Statewide Planning Map lists IH 69 at 74.679 miles
I-69 Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
|Location||Vehicles per day|
|Fort Wayne, IN||76,642 (2018)|
The Northeast Freeway leading south from Binford Boulevard by the Indiana State Fairgrounds south toward Downtown Indianapolis was dropped during the 1960s. Binford Boulevard was later expanded into a multi-lane arterial and dropped as State Road 37 when all routes within the Indianapolis Beltway were decertified.
Interstate 69 was initially proposed to extend north from Indiana to Interstate 94 near Marshall. The route would later replace U.S. 27 north to Lansing and M-78 east from Lansing to Flint
Interstate 69 will cross into Louisiana from Texas between U.S. 79 and U.S. 84 near Carthage, Texas, between Logansport and Bethany. Heading northeast, I-69 will head toward Shreveport and Bossier City via Louisiana 525 (approximately), then angle roughly toward Haynesville before entering Arkansas via AR 15. It is likely that Interstate 69 will stay south of Shreveport by avoiding I-20 and crossing I-49 south of Shreveport.
Interstate 69 will enter Arkansas just southwest of El Dorado, parallel to U.S. 63 & 167. Segment 13 connects El Dorado with McGehee. While the highway will generally parallel U.S. 63, it will utilize a new alignment.
Segment 12 connects McGehee with Benoit, Mississippi. Segment 12 includes a new Mississippi River crossing east of McGehee. Through Arkansas, Interstate 69 will pass through Warren, Monticello and Dumas, roughly paralleling U.S. 82 and U.S. 165. A connection to Interstate 530 is planned near Monticello (since I-530 is considered part of the I-69 corridor, it has been designated as Segment 28), and this will allow for a variation on the “Dickey Split” so that I-69 has a direct freeway connection to Little Rock. I-69 may also follow portions of U.S. 167, U.S. 63 (old Arkansas 15), and U.S. 278 (old Arkansas 4) between El Dorado and McGehee.
The Great River Bridge is the crossing Interstate 69 will take across the Mississippi River. Planned at Rosedale, Mississippi, as a compromise location between Mississippi and Arkansas, the bridge is being designed as a four-lane Interstate-grade bridge, contingent upon I-69 being constructed to the bridge. Leading away from the river, I-69 will turn north along U.S. 61 toward Memphis.
The section from U.S. 61 near Tunica to Interstate 55 north of Hernando opened on October 3, 2006.5 On May 6, 2008, the Interstate 69 designation was extended north on shared alignments with I-55, I-240 and I-40 through Memphis, Tennessee, after approval by AASHTO. Signs in Tennessee however only refer to “Future Interstate 69”.
Main guide: Interstate 69 Mississippi
Through Memphis, I-69 utilizes I-55, I-40 and I-240 north to the SR 300 freeway spur as part of Segment 9. This was the alignment recommended by the Memphis Metropolitan Planning Organization and the City of Memphis. A beltway route, Interstate 269, bypasses the city to the east via a course parallel to MS 304 in DeSoto County and along the SR 385 freeway between Millington and Collierville. I-269 was completed between I-55/69 in Mississippi and I-40 in Tennessee on October 26, 2018.
Much of the route along I-55 and I-40 incorporated into Interstate 69 through Memphis was improved by 2010 to carry between six and eight lanes. Beyond the Memphis belt line, I-69 will take SR300 northwest to U.S. 51, then parallel U.S. 51 to the west to Covington. The freeway will overtake U.S. 51 across the Hatchee River before shifting east of U.S. 51 around Ripley and west of U.S. 51 again to I-155/U.S. 412 at Dyersburg. This alignment is a part of Segment 8. Segment 7 entails the corridor from Dyersburg northeast to Union City and South Fulton. A new alignment is currently under construction for I-69 from Union City that will connect directly to the Julian M. Carroll Purchase Parkway.3 Additionally, the SR 22 freeway is proposed to extend west to meet I-69 and possibly become a spur route: Interstate 169.
Interstate 69 will continue along U.S. 51 north to the Julian M. Carroll Purchase Parkway connection at Fulton, Kentucky as part of Segment 6 (Fulton north to Eddyville). I-69 follows the Purchase Parkway from KY 166 to Interstate 24. Between 1991 and 1999, it appeared as if I-69 would be constructed on a new alignment from the parkway terminus northeast to Henderson, Kentucky. However, in May 1999, the state of Kentucky announced that I-69 would follow the existing Wendell Ford/Western Kentucky Parkway and Breathitt/Pennyrile Parkway (Segment 5, from Eddyville to Nortonville, and Nortonville to Henderson). Future Interstate 69 signs were posted along these preexisting freeways on October 18, 2011.
The Purchase Parkway was formally established as Interstate 69 by AASHTO on May 15, 2015. This covered the 50 mile stretch from KY 166 at Fulton northeast to Interstate 24, south of Calvert City. 38 miles of I-69 were previously approved by AASHTO for the portion of I-24 leading east from the Purchase Parkway to the Western Kentucky Parkway, and along the WK Parkway east to the Pennyrile Parkway.
A project to add high speed ramps between the former Western Kentucky Parkway and Pennyrile Parkway for the Interstate 69 mainline was let in late 2014. This work coincided with efforts to bring the Pennyrile Parkway up to Interstate standards, including a total rebuild of the Mortons Gap interchange. Total cost for these projects was estimated at $146 million.8
Completion of this work allowed I-69 shields to be placed northward through Madisonville to Henderson. The AASHTO meeting on May 15, 2015 addressed I-69 again with the approval of 42-miles of the Edward T. Breathitt Pennyrile Parkway, from the WK Parkway north to KY 425 just south of Henderson, as new Interstate 69. The parkway was formally designated as I-69 at a ceremony held by outgoing Kentucky Governor Steve Beshear on November 16, 2015. This followed completion of the Mortons Gap interchange project.13
U.S. 41 links Henderson, Kentucky and Evansville, Indiana. The U.S. 41 bridges across the Ohio River are not adequate for freeway standards, and a new Ohio River crossing will be built for I-69 to the east. The new alignment will bypass Henderson to the east and connect with I-69 (old I-164) north at Evansville, Indiana as part of Segment 4. 2011 cost estimates for the crossing and approaches were $1.4-billion.2
I-69 incorporated 20.70 miles of former Interstate 164 when it overtook the alignment north from U.S. 41 to I-64 as approved by AASHTO on October 21, 2013. This tied into a previously completed 1.77-mile segment of I-69 between I-64 and SR 68. Groundbreaking for that portion was held during the week of July 14, 2008, in Gibson County.6 It replaced SR 57 to the west between the cloverleaf interchange at I-64 and SR 68 when it opened on October 1, 2009.
Continuing north from there along new alignment, Interstate 69 serves Oakland City, Petersburg, Washington and Crane. Accelerated by INDOT’s “Major Moves” initiative funded by the leasing of the Indiana Toll Road, the 67-mile stretch opened between SR 64 and U.S. 231 near Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center on November 19, 2012.
Segment 4 extends Interstate 69 north from U.S. 231 at Crane to Bloomington. Paralleling existing routes, I-69 follows SR 45 eastward to merge with SR 37 on the south side of Bloomington. This 27-mile section opened following a ribbon cutting ceremony held on December 9, 2015. The $471-million was previously delayed by nearly a year due to wet summers and inclement winters in 2013 and 2014.9
Beyond Bloomington, Interstate 69 overlays SR 37 north to Martinsville on “Route 3-C”. Construction to upgrade SR 37 along Segment 5 was underway as of May 2015.9 State highway officials initially expected completion of Section 5 by October 2016, but delays including contractor disputes halted some work on the project. The projected completion for the 21-mile section was delayed initially to June 2017.17 Further issues due to missed or delayed payments from the lead contractor to subcontractors pushed the tentative completion date back further to October 2017 or later.18
The corridor for Segment 6, from Martinsville to Indianapolis, was formally selected by INDOT on March 29, 2016. Of the four routes considered, the final 26 miles of I-69 will rebuild or parallel SR 37 by 2,000 feet north to I-465. Construction will vary between two and seven years depending upon funding. Potential completion ranges from 2022 to 2027.16
The new Interstate 69 will reconnect with existing I-69 at Indianapolis via a shared alignment with I-465 along the south and east sides of the city.
Exit numbers along the original Interstate 69 from Indianapolis (I-465) northward to Michigan were renumbered in August-October 2012 to account for the additional mileage gained from the Evansville to Indianapolis stretch underway. To simplify things, INDOT increased all existing exit numbers by 200 while the actual mileage gain is estimated at 184 miles.
Prior to the final route selection in January 2003, Interstate 69 was proposed to follow one of the following five possible routes:
- Interstate 70 to U.S. 41 from Indianapolis to Evansville via Terre Haute
- Interstate 70 or SR 37 to SR 67 to U.S. 41 via Indianapolis, Martinsville, Vincennes, and Evansville
- Interstate 70 or SR 37 to SR 67 to SR 57 via Indianapolis, Martinsville, Switz City, and Evansville
- Interstate 70 or SR 37 to SR 67 to connect to SR 57 via a new alignment via Indianapolis, Martinsville, Bloomington, Washington, Evansville
- Indiana State Road 37 to U.S. 50 to SR 57 via Indianapolis, Bloomington, Bedford, Washington, and Evansville
Much of the information regarding the I-69 extension in Indiana was researched from The Indianapolis Star.
North End – International Border / Blue Water Bridge – Port Huron, Michigan
I-69 eastbound combines with I-94 ahead of the separation with Business Loop I-69 leading into Port Huron. The business route parallels I-69/94 to the south along the couplet of Oak and Griswold Streets while the freeway proceeds east toward Sarnia, Ontario. Photo taken by Jeff Morrison (06/25/07).
East at / Blue Water Bridge
I-69/94 combine east ahead of Water Street and the freeway conclusion at M-25 and the Blue Water Bridge into Canada.
Major reconstruction was underway along I-69/94 in 2011 between Exit 274 and the Blue Water Bridge approach. Of the changes, the wye with Lapeer Road (Business Loop I-69) was reconfigured into a diamond interchange to provide eastbound access. Photo taken by Jeff Morrison (07/01/07).
Approaching the off-ramp to M-25 (Pine Grove Avenue) along I-69/94 east. A new bridge was constructed for the freeway over the Black River during 2011-12 construction and the forthcoming wye interchange to Pine Grove Avenue (former U.S. 25, decommissioned in 1972) was reconfigured to eliminate the left side ramp. The Blue Water Bridge provides connections to Ontario Highway 402 and Sarnia. Photo taken by R. Bruce Telfeyan (07/24/04).
The Blue Water Bridge consists of two spans, a continuous tied arch bridge for eastbound traffic and a cantilever truss for westbound motorists. The original span was constructed following a ground breaking ceremony held on June 23, 1937 in the city of Port Huron. It opened to two-way traffic on October 10, 1938. The second bridge was built between June 1995 and July 1997. Upon completion, traffic from the 1937-span shifted onto the newly opened bridge, allowing for renovation of the original crossing. Westbound traffic fully shifted onto the rebuilt bridge in November 1999.19
A loop ramp connects M-25 (Pine Grove Avenue) south with the Blue Water Bridge from just north of Elmwood Street. M-25 formally ends a block to the north while historic U.S. 25 continues south into Downtown Port Huron. Photo taken by Jeff Morrison (06/25/07).
Historic Eastern Terminus – – Flint, Michigan
I-69 eastbound concluded at I-475 just beyond the Beach Street overpass in Flint. Brackets visible here once supported overheads displaying signage with two M-21 shields and the control cities of Lapeer and Port Huron. A previous guide sign for I-475 only referenced Detroit, as the freeway north from I-69 was not completed before 1984. Photo taken 11/06/09.
Cardinal Direction Change – Lansing, Michigan
South End – Indianapolis, Indiana
South at / Binford Boulevard
Binford Boulevard North at
Proposed changes at the directional cloverleaf interchange in the 465/69 Northeast project outlined a new high-speed flyover from I-465 east to I-69 north, with a c/d roadway northeast to the nearby East 82nd Street interchange. These upgrades did not progress as planned. Photo taken by Chris and Amber Lokken (06/23/08).
Exit 37A joins I-465 east with Binford Boulevard (former SR 37) south just ahead of I-69 north. When the state road was relocated from within the beltway in the late 1990s, its alignment was renamed Binford Boulevard. As part of the 1968 Indianapolis Transportation Plan, Binford Boulevard follows the planned route of the Northeast Freeway to Falls Creek Parkway. Photo taken by Chris and Amber Lokken (06/23/08).
- Update courtesy Don Hargraves, email 06/11/02
- “Kentucky may see signs of I-69.” Evansville Courier & Press, September 2, 2011.
- Tennessee DOT Official Interstate 69 Webpage (Segments 7, 8, and 9).
- “Interstate roads have shaped the future for many mid-Michigan communities,” Lansing State Journal. July 23, 2006, By Christine Rook and featuring Michigan Highways creator Chris Bessert.
- “Road to Riches: DeSoto, region expected to reap major benefits of highway” by Wayne Risher, October 2, 2006, Memphis Commercial-Appeal
- “I-69 groundbreaking ceremony invitation-only,” Evansville Courier & Press, July 3, 2008
- Alliance for I-69 Texas web site.
- “KYDOT District Engineer Presents Road Work Updates.” SurfKY News Media. October 17, 2013.
- “INDOT: Next section of I-69 to open by end of year.” Evansville Courier & Press May 26, 2015.
- “‘New’ Interstate 69 may look familiar – Well, it should be because it’s also part of U.S. 59 ” Houston Chronicle, March 27, 2015.
- “Signs, signs, everywhere 59 and 69 signs” The Highwayman – Transportion in Houston with Dug Begley, March 28, 2015.
- Interstate 69 (I-69) Texas to Michigan – Corridors of the Future Fact Sheet, Federal Highway Administration.
- “Stretch of Pennyrile Parkway in Western Kentucky upgraded to I-69.” The Lane Report, November 16, 2015.
- “SH 44 Added to Congressionally Designated I-69 Corridor.” Alliance for I-69 Texas web site, December 5, 2015.
- “Flint Freeway Finished Dec. 21.” The Owosso Argus-Press, December 4, 1971.
- “Indiana pays over $184M for properties along I-69 route.” News-Sentinel (Fort Wayne, IN), April 5, 2016.
- “Section of I-69 extension won’t be complete until June 2017.” Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), April 13, 2016.
- “I-69 Section 5 project pushed back again.” Evansville Courier&Press, September 21, 2016.
- Blue Water Bridge – History. Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) web page.
Page updated August 8, 2019.