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Interstate 95

 

Northbound Interstate 95 enters the toll plaza along the New England Section of the New York State Thruway. The Interstate 95 shield posted on the toll plaza is a contender for the largest such shield on the Interstate Highway System. Photo taken by AARoads (08/29/05).

Routing

The East Coast's Main Street, Interstate 95 serves the entire Northeast Megalopolis, while also serving southeastern cities of Jacksonville and Miami along Florida's Space Coast. The highway is an important factor in commerce and tourism, linking scenic New England with the subtropical environs of southern Florida. It passes through more states than any other Interstate highway.

Interstate 95 also has more "child" routes than any other Interstate highway, and its spurs are generally much longer than those belonging to other routes (proposed routes are marked with a *):

  • Interstate 195 - FL, VA, MD, NJ, RI/MA, ME
  • Interstate 295 - FL, NC*, VA, MD/DC, DE/NJ/(PA*), NY, RI/MA
  • Interstate 395 - FL, VA/DC, MD, CT/MA, ME
  • Interstate 495 - VA/DC/MD, DE, NY, MA
  • Interstate 595 - FL, MD
  • Interstate 695 - DC, MD, NY
  • Interstate 795 - MD, FL*
  • Interstate 895 - VA*, MD, NY

High Priority Corridor

Interstate 95 in Florida is part of High Priority Corridor 49: Atlantic Commerce Corridor. Through northern New Jersey, Interstate 95 is part of High Priority Corridor 63: Liberty Corridor. In Connecticut, Interstate 95 is part of High Priority Corridor 65: Interstate 95 Connecticut. A short portion of Interstate 95 near Bangor, Maine is part of High Priority Corridor 50: East-West Corridor from Watertown to Calais.

Parallel U.S. Routes

Overall, Interstate 95 follows U.S. 1, but it deviates from U.S. 1 in Georgia, the Carolinas, and Southern Virginia. Through those states, it follows U.S. 17 and U.S. 301, with a brief section that parallels U.S. 15 in South Carolina.

Unconstructed Alignments of I-95 in Urban Areas

As if the Interstate 95 gap in New Jersey was not enough of obstacle in the path, many alignments in the older Northeastern cities came about after much deliberation politically and socially among community leaders and officials of each respective city. The through route for Interstate 95 through the downtowns of Washington, D.C., and Boston was not constructed; the Interstate instead follows the bypass route.

In Washington, D.C., Interstate 95 was originally planned to traverse the nation's capital district, with a path northeast through the city, to the current Interstate 95/495 junction. Interstate 395 represents the portion of Interstate 95 that was built within the Capital Beltway. The most controversial section of the freeway included the "inner belt," which included portions of unconstructed Interstate 95, Interstate 266, and Interstate 295. This inner belt would have passed through lower income areas, causing a great deal of protestation for such a road to impact that group disproportionately.16 The right of way for Interstate 95 north of downtown, from the District of Columbia boundary north to the Capital Beltway is still reserved, but it is used for power lines rather than a freeway.

In Boston, Interstate 95 was intended to pass directly through the city, entering Boston from the southwest, then linking to a proposed but unconstructed Inner Belt Expressway (Interstate 695). From there, Interstate 95 would have followed the existing U.S. 1/Northeast Expressway, then travel north to the present Interstate 95/Massachusetts 128 junction west of Peabody. Neither the southwestern nor northeastern sections were built, and they were withdrawn from the Interstate Highway System on May 23, 1974.25 Sections that were built are today part of Interstate 93 through downtown Boston and U.S. 1 northeast of downtown.

In other cities through which Interstate 95 passes, the freeway was not always built with mitigation plans for the residents who had to be displaced. As a result, some residents whose houses were demolished to allow for the freeway to bring "progress" to their city were displeased with the planning process. In places that were bisected by Interstate 95, such as Wilmington, Delaware, the new freeway was not welcomed by everyone. Many homes were in the chosen path of the highway, which was just to the west of downtown. The construction of the new freeway displaced residents and cut through neighborhoods, with some residents to this day bitter about the highway's destruction of the community.

Construction of Interstate 95 through Providence, Rhode Island in 1958 required the acquisition of hundreds and homes and businesses and two historic churches. The path through Philadelphia required special considerations in 1961 because of the historical nature of Penn's Landing and the redevelopment at the time of Society Hill and Washington Square East. In Jacksonville, Interstate 95 traveled through minority neighborhoods from the downtown to the Trout River. In Miami, Interstate 95 cut through the Liberty City neighborhood, which was (and is), the poorest part of Miami. Unfortunately Interstate 95 often took the path of “least resistance”, meaning where the land values were low, even if it meant the displacement of poor communities.

In addition to the social cost of building infrastructure through established communities, there was an increased economic cost of building through urbanized regions. For example, in Philadelphia, the construction costs of Interstate 95 (known as the Delaware Expressway) became more costly than any other project at that time. This was partially due to the fact that much of the freeway was constructed on an elevated viaduct directly adjacent to the Delaware Riverfront.16

The Gap of Interstate 95 in New Jersey/Pennsylvania

Although for the most part complete, Interstate 95 has a significant gap between the cities of Trenton and New Brunswick in New Jersey. This gap will be closed by 2010 with a routing via the New Jersey Turnpike, but the delay is due to the construction of a connector interchange between Interstate 95 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike near Bristol. (At that time, existing Interstate 95 north of the Pennsylvania Turnpike will be converted into an extension of Interstate 295.)

In the meantime, Interstate 95 changes into Interstate 295 at the U.S. 1 interchange just to the northeast of Trenton, complete with signage indicating the end of Interstate 95. Until recently, signage for Interstate 95 did not resume until near East Brunswick on the New Jersey Turnpike. However, the Turnpike now sports signage for Interstate 95 from Exit 6 northward. Traffic may connect to Interstate 95 via Interstate 295 and Interstate 195, but it is a circuitous route. Reasons as to why the proposed section between Lawrenceville and New Brunswick/Edison was never completed involved community opposition to the roadway, and opposition from the New Jersey Turnpike Authority, which feared lost revenue due to the competition of a free highway to the west. Ray Martin gives a descriptive account of the "Interstate 95 Gap" on his History of the Interstate 95 "Missing Link" of central New Jersey page.

The Roads & Bridges article (Interstate 2000) astutely notices that Interstate 95 between Trenton, New Jersey, and Newark, New Jersey, is incomplete. As a result, the plan is to route Interstate 95 on the New Jersey Turnpike between the Trenton area and the New York metropolitan area. To do this, a new interchange will be constructed between Interstate 95 and Interstate 276 (the Pennsylvania Turnpike). Len Pundt is a member of the Community Advisory Committee for the Interstate 95/Pennsylvania Turnpike connection project. He indicates that construction of this interchange will begin around 2002 and take about six years, depending on availability of funds to pay for the road. The connection will be a high-speed omnidirectional interchange, with the primary direction changes of northbound Interstate 95 to eastbound Pennsylvania Turnpike and westbound Pennsylvania Turnpike to southbound Interstate 95. The project includes a barrier toll plaza west of the interchange, at which point the ticket system will end. From there east, the toll system will be coin drop. This, of course, allows the interchange to be built without a toll plaza. (Len adds that federal law from 1986 [?] mandates a high-speed interchange.) When the interchange is completed, the existing Pennsylvania Turnpike (Interstate 276) east of it, the New Jersey Turnpike spur, and the New Jersey Turnpike north of the spur will be re-designated Interstate 95. The existing Interstate 95 north of the interchange will be re-designated Interstate 295.

I-95 Toll Road History

A significant portion of Interstate 95 has been or remains a toll road, generally because efforts to construct the toll road predates the creation of the Interstate Highway System. Here is an overview of those segments of Interstate 95 that have been or are toll roads.

Florida

Through South Florida, Interstate 95 originally followed the Sunshine State Parkway (today's Florida's Turnpike) in a temporary capacity from the Golden Glades Interchange north to near Fort Pierce. This 110-mile section opened to traffic in 1957. Additional sections of the turnpike extended the route north to Wildwood in 1964 and south to Homestead in 1974.17 Between the mid-1950s and 1980s, Interstate 95 was constructed as a non-tolled freeway, and the designation was shifted off of the tolled turnpike. The final section of Florida's Interstate 95, which bypassed Florida's Turnpike between North Palm Beach and Fort Pierce, opened December 19, 1987. The $222 million project ended with then-Governor Bob Martinez driving a 1929 Ford Model A on the new roadway during the dedication ceremonies.13

Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike (Virginia)

In Virginia, Interstate 95 (and the northernmost portion of Interstate 85) compose the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike. This 36-mile facility came into operation in 1958. The original plan for Interstate 95 was to route the highway around both Petersburg and Richmond along what is today Interstate 295. The Turnpike was originally planned as a temporary route for Interstate 95, but it would be transferred onto the new freeway once it was constructed. At that time, the Turnpike would become a state route, no longer in the Interstate Highway System.

The connections between Interstate 85, Interstate 95, and the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike would be afforded by three Interstate spur routes. The plans, which were approved in the mid-1970s, called for the following:18

  • Interstate 85 would be transferred onto a new freeway that would travel east to meet the current Interstate 95/295 interchange (this was not constructed)
  • The section of Interstate 85 from the new freeway northeast to the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike would be renumbered as Interstate 385
  • The section of Interstate 95 from today's Interstate 95/295 interchange north to the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike would be renumbered as Interstate 795
  • The mainline Turnpike would carry an unspecified state route number
  • Interstate 95 between the interchange with Interstate 64 and Interstate 195 north to the second interchange with Interstate 295 would be numbered Interstate 195
  • Today's Interstate 295 would be Interstate 95 from Petersburg to Richmond
  • Interstate 295 would be the designation for the western half belt route of Richmond, which today is Interstate 295 and (more or less) Virginia 288

However, as the new freeway was constructed in stages between 1984 and 1992, it was signed as Interstate 295, not Interstate 95. In 1975, the turnpike bonds were paid off, but a subsequent expansion project to widen 22 miles of the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike to six lanes and reconstruct certain interchanges resulted in another bond issuance. Those bonds were paid off by 1985, and other local projects funded by these tolls were completed by 1991. Tolls were eliminated on the Turnpike on July 1, 1992. Coincidentally, that was the same day that Interstate 295 to the east was opened to traffic.14 There are no plans to restore the tolls to the Turnpike.

Fort McHenry Tunnel - Maryland

The Fort McHenry Tunnel in Baltimore opened to traffic on November 23, 1985, at a cost of $750 million. It is the world's largest submerged tube-tunnel.25

Northbound Interstate 95 enters Fort McHenry Tunnel. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman (06/22/05).

John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway - Maryland

Between Baltimore, Maryland, and the Delaware State Line, Interstate 95 uses the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway (which is maintained as a tollway by the Maryland Transportation Authority). Planned as the "Northeastern Expressway," the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway carries Interstate 95 between Exit 67 (Junction Maryland 43/White Marsh Boulevard) and the Maryland-Delaware state line. Built between January 1962 and November 1963, the opening of the memorial highway was the last public appearance by President John F. Kennedy on November 14, 1963; he was assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963. In 1964, the Northeastern Expressway was renamed in honor of President Kennedy.19

Delaware Turnpike

The Delaware Turnpike, which connects the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway with the Delaware Memorial Bridge (Interstate 295), was also constructed during the early 1960s. Built in tandem with the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway, construction began in January 1962, and the freeway was opened to traffic in November 1963. There were plans to connect the Delaware Turnpike with the Chesapeake Bay Bridge (U.S. 50-301) in Maryland via the U.S. 301 corridor, but this route remains a conventional two to four-lane highway and is not a freeway. Exit 2, which is missing on the Delaware Turnpike, was reserved for the future connection with the unconstructed U.S. 301 freeway. At the northeastern end of the Turnpike is the Delaware Memorial Bridge, which today connects Interstate 95 to the southern end of the New Jersey Turnpike via Interstate 295. Interstate 95, however, continues north via the Delaware Expressway into Pennsylvania, where it enters the Philadelphia metropolitan area.

New Jersey Turnpike

In New Jersey, Interstate 95 uses the New Jersey Turnpike, entering the state via the Pennsylvania Turnpike Extension and traveling north on the New Jersey Turnpike from that point (Exit 6A) north to Interstate 80 and the approach to the George Washington Bridge. The section of mainline turnpike south of Exit 6A is designated as New Jersey 700 and is not part of the Interstate Highway System. Until the interchange between Interstate 95 and Interstate 276 is completed in Pennsylvania (anticipated in 2010), Interstate 95 will not be fully signed on the Turnpike.

The New Jersey Turnpike was authorized by state legislators in 1948, and the mainline (excluding the connection to the Pennsylvania Turnpike) was constructed between January 1950 and January 1952 in the following order from south to north:20

  • Deepwater (Exit 1) to Bordentown (Exit 7) (53 miles) - opened November 5, 1951
  • Bordentown to Woodbridge (Exit 11) (40 miles) - opened November 30, 1951
  • Woodbridge to Newark (Exit 14) (16 miles) - opened on December 13, 1951
  • Newark to Ridgefield Park (9 miles) - opened on January 15, 1952
  • Pearl Harbor Memorial (Pennsylvania Turnpike) Extension (6 miles) - opened on May 25, 1956

Interstate 95W, which is the 12-mile "western spur" of the New Jersey Turnpike in the vicinity of Newark, was opened in September 1970. It provides the best through route to the George Washington Bridge and through Interstate 95 traffic bound for New England. In addition, the New Jersey Turnpike bought the section of Interstate 95 from Interstate 80 in Ridgefield Park to the George Washington Bridge from the New Jersey Department of Transportation in July 1992, so that stretch is also part of the turnpike system. For more facts, visit the official About the New Jersey Turnpike web page.

George Washington Bridge

The George Washington Bridge, which carries Interstate 95 over the Hudson River, was built between October 1927 and October 1931; the bridge opened to traffic on October 25, 1931. A major increase to capacity was achieved when the lower level to the bridge was opened on August 29, 1962. As a result of this improvement, the bridge carries 14 lanes of traffic. Managed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the bridge has a sidewalk for pedestrians and bicyclists. For more information about the bridge, visit George Washington Bridge official site.

New England Thruway

Through New York City, Interstate 95 follows the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and Cross-Bronx Expressway from the George Washington Bridge east to Interstate 278/295/695, then follows the Bruckner Expressway northeast until the Bronx-Pelham Parkway interchange. From the Bronx-Pelham Parkway interchange (Exit 8B-C) northeast to the Connecticut State Line via Westchester County, Interstate 95 follows the New England Thruway. This extant section of the New York Thruway was constructed in the early 1950s and opened to traffic in 1958. For more on the history of the Thruway, visit the official New York Thruway Factbook.

Connecticut Turnpike

Through much of its route in Connecticut, Interstate 95 follows the original Connecticut Turnpike. Built in stages in the early 1950s, the turnpike incorporated some pre-existing bypasses of U.S. 1. The Connecticut Turnpike was approved as part of Interstate 95 by the Bureau of Public Roads on August 21, 1957. It was built at a cost of $464 million and opened to traffic on January 2, 1958.25 A bridge over the Mianus River collapsed on June 28, 1983, resulting in the death of three people. The use of federal funding to replace the bridge included a provision that required Connecticut to stop levying tolls after the bonds were paid off. Tolls on the Connecticut Turnpike section of Interstate 95 from the New York-Connecticut State Line northeast to the Interstate 395 interchange were subsequently removed on October 10, 1985.21, 25

Blue Star Turnpike - New Hampshire

The section of Interstate 95 through New Hampshire is part of the New Hampshire Turnpike System. The Blue Star Turnpike connects Interstate 95 at the Massachusetts-New Hampshire state line in Seabrook with the Portsmouth Traffic Circle in Portsmouth. The remaining section of Interstate 95 in New Hampshire is not part of the turnpike. Most of the turnpike was built in the 1950s.22

Maine Turnpike: Redesignation of Interstate 95, 295, and 495 in Maine

The Maine Turnpike was built in stages between 1941 and 1955. The first section between Kittery and Portland was planned and constructed between 1941 and 1947; the freeway opened in December 1947. Between 1947 and 1955, the second section was planned and constructed, taking the turnpike from Portland north to Augusta, including a short spur to U.S. 1 in Falmouth. This second segment opened to traffic on December 13, 1955. The first segment was designated as Interstate 95; the second segment was initially not given an Interstate highway designation. That changed in the 1980s when the second segment was designated as Interstate 495.23

So, between the mid-1950s and 2004, Interstate 95 followed the Maine Turnpike northward to metropolitan Portland, then departed the turnpike via the tolled Falmouth Spur. From the east-west Falmouth Spur, Interstate 95 traveled to the northern end of Interstate 295 and onto a free highway alignment between Falmouth and Gardiner. A proposal to change the designation of Interstate 95, Interstate 295, and Interstate 495 was approved by AASHTO on October 11, 2002.

On January 5, 2004, in an effort to reduce confusion along the Interstate 95 alignment, the Maine Department of Transportation redesignated former Interstate 495/Maine Turnpike as Interstate 95. As a result of this change, former Interstate 95 was renumbered as a northerly extension of Interstate 295 between Falmouth and Gardiner. The short, east-west Falmouth Spur became unsigned Interstate 495. Interstate 95 now follows the entire Maine Turnpike from Kittery to Augusta. As a result of this change, Interstate 95 features mileage-based exit numbers rather than sequential-based exit numbers. The redesignation process was completed within a week, as it was completed by January 10, 2004.15

History

The following are key dates in the history of Interstate 95 in Florida:24

  • 1959 - On the 1959 Shell (Gousha) Florida Map, Interstate 95 appeared as the "Jacksonville Expressway" from Beaver Street to the junction of U.S. 1 and U.S. 90 in South Jacksonville, the Fuller Warren Bridge (first segment to open).
  • 1960 - Interstate 95 signed and built through downtown Jacksonville, up to Heckscher Drive.
  • 1961 - Short section of Interstate 95 opened in Miami, including the link to Interstate 195.
  • 1963 - Interstate 95 opened from the Golden Glades interchange to Hallandale and was signed on the already constructed Sunshine State Parkway from West Palm Beach north to Fort Pierce. Interstate 95 would remain signed on this section of the Sunshine State Parkway (later Florida's Turnpike) until 1977.
  • 1964 - Interstate 95 opened through the Golden Glades Interchange (Junction Florida 826/Palmetto Expressway, U.S. 441, and Sunshine State Parkway) and then north to Florida 84 in Fort Lauderdale. In Jacksonville, Interstate 95 was complete and opened between the South Jacksonville interchange and Florida 104. Interstate 95 under construction (1) at connection to Dixie Highway along South Bay Drive, (2) from Malabar to Mims, and (3) from Daytona Beach north to Jacksonville.
  • 1965 - Interstate 95 opened (1) from Malabar to Eau Gallie and (2) from Daytona Beach to Bunnell.
  • 1967 - Interstate 95 opened (1) from Eau Gallie to Scottsmoor and (2) from Bunnell to Jacksonville were opened. Interstate 95 under construction from Jacksonville north to Gross.
  • 1968 - Interstate 95 (North-South Expressway) opened (1) from U.S. 1 north to Lummus Park and (2) from 20th Street to Interstate 195. Interstate 95 under construction: (1) at interchange with Florida 836 (Dolphin East-West Expressway), (2) from Florida 84 north to Florida 82, (3) from West Palm Beach to Florida's Turnpike, (4) from Florida 60 north to Malabar, and (5) from Scottsmoor north to Daytona Beach.
  • 1970 - Interstate 95 opened from Florida 60 to Gross. Interstate 95 under construction from Gross north to the Florida-Georgia State Line.
  • 1971 - Interstate 95 opened from Gross to the Florida-Georgia State Line.
  • 1972 - Interstate 95 was under construction from Fort Lauderdale north to West Palm Beach.
  • 1977 - Interstate 95 opened from Fort Lauderdale north to West Palm Beach. Proposed route from West Palm Beach to
  • Fort Pierce finalized. Interstate 95 shields removed from Florida's Turnpike. Construction begins on section from Fort Pierce to Florida 60.
  • 1978 - Interstate 95 opened from Indrio to Florida 60.
  • 1979 - Interstate 95 opened Fort Pierce to Indrio.
  • 1981 - Interstate 95 construction started from County Route 714 to Fort Pierce.
  • 1984 - Interstate 95 opened from Port St. Lucie north to Fort Pierce. Gap existed between Port St, Lucie south to Palm Beach Gardens. The proposed connection between these two cities was still being determined, but the proposal shifted in 1984 to look more like the current alignment of Interstate 95. The Miami Metro Rail (an elevated commuter rail service) begins service in May 1984.
  • 1985 - Interstate 95 opened from County Route 714 north to Port St. Lucie.
  • 1987 - Interstate 95 opened from Palm Beach Gardens north to County Route 714. Interstate 95 is now complete from U.S. 1 in Miami north to the Georgia-Florida State Line, which is its original, planned route.

In Maine, the following are key dates in the history of Interstate 95:26

  • 1947 - Maine Turnpike from Kittery to Portland opened
  • 1955 - Maine Turnpike from Portland to Augusta opened
  • 1955 - The Falmouth Spur segment of the Maine Turnpike opened (the Falmouth Spur was incorporated into Interstate 95 from 1956 until 2004; today it is unsigned Interstate 495 and acts as a connector between Interstate 95 and Interstate 295 north of Portland)
  • 1960 - Section from Augusta to Fairfield opens
  • 1960 - Section from Hammond Street (Exit 183) to Hogan Road (Exit 187) opens in Bangor
  • 1961 - Section from Bangor to Orono opens
  • 1963 - Section from Newport (Junction Maine 100) to Interstate 395/Bangor Industrial Spur opens
  • 1964 - Section from Fairfield to Newport opens
  • 1965 - Section from Orono to Howland opens, with certain sections built as Super Two
  • 1966 - Sections from Howland to Medway and from Oakfield to Houlton open as Super Two
  • 1967 - Final section of Interstate 95 completed from Bangor to Houlton with completion of bypasses of Medway and Oakfield
  • 1972 - The Piscataqua River Bridge between Maine and New Hampshire opened; sections of Super Two are converted to four-lane, divided freeway near Alton and Howland
  • 1973 - Connector from Piscataqua River Bridge to Maine Turnpike is completed
  • 1976 - More conversions of Super Two to four-lane freeway occur on sections from Howland to Lincoln and from Lincoln and Medway
  • 1977 - Interstate 95 from Symrna to Houlton are converted from Super Two to four-lane freeway
  • 1979 - Sections from Medway to Sherman, from Sherman to Island Falls, and from Island Falls to Oakfield are converted from Super Two to four-lane freeway
  • 1981 - Section from Oakfield to Smyrna are converted from Super Two to freeway
  • The section of Interstate 95 that crosses the Argyle Bog north of Bangor required special construction requirements due to the presence of unexploded ordnance. The U.S. Army used the area around Argyle Bog as a weapons testing/training area between World War I and World War II. Probes and other devices used for soil testing were not used in order to avoid setting off unexploded ordnance. Parade Magazine, the Sunday supplement to many national newspapers, rated Interstate 95 from Augusta to Fairfield as the nation's most scenic highway in 1961. In 1965, the same competition rated the section from Bangor to Newport as an "honorable mention."

    Planned Improvements

    Florida

    New toll lanes are being added to Interstate 95 in Miami as part of the 95 Express Lanes project. These high occupancy toll (HOT) lanes will allow carpools with three or more passengers to use the lanes free of charge; tolls will be charged for other users with a SunPass transponder. Phase One will provide for two toll lanes and four general purpose lanes separated by short orange poles along northbound Interstate 95 between downtown Miami and the Golden Glades interchange (Junction Florida 826/Palmetto Expressway and Florida's Turnpike); it opens in August 2008. Phase Two will create two HOT lanes on southbound Interstate 95 between the Golden Glades interchange and downtown Miami; this section is scheduled to open in late 2009. A third phase would construct an extension of the HOT lanes in both directions north to Interstate 595 (Everglades Expressway) in Fort Lauderdale; this would open in 2010 or later depending on funding identification.27

    South Carolina

    Interstate 95 through the Palmetto State is undergoing some changes. Between Interstate 20 and South Carolina 327 is one of the heavier traveled sections of the freeway in South Carolina. To improve the highway SCDOT will embark upon a reconstruction and widening of Interstate 95. This will replace the current two lane concrete carriageways with new three lane alignments. The new roadways will consist of new concrete and result in a concrete barrier in place of the current grassy median. Also in association with this project is the bridge replacement or rehabilitation of five spans over Interstate 95 and interchange ramp improvements. This includes the U.S. 52 overpasses and interchange at Exit 164. Additionally the Interstate 95 bridges over an abandoned railroad north of U.S. 52 will be removed and replaced with fill material. Construction began July of 2002 and will complete by August 31, 2004.1 The total cost of the project is $65 million.5

    While the state of North Carolina has considered implementing tolls to help cover the costs associated with Interstate 95 reconstruction and widening, South Carolina has not. The S.C. Department of Transportation indicates that tolls will not be used to help pay for projects such as the 10 mile widening of Interstate 95 at Florence. Even with 34,500 vpd at the North Carolina line and 42,700 vpd at the Georgia state line, there are no immediate plans to overhaul or widen the rest of Interstate 95 in South Carolina at this time.8

    Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    The Washington D.C. metropolitan area is home to two massive Interstate 95 related projects. The first of these projects is the total reconstruction of the Interstate 95/395/495 interchange complex, dubbed the The Springfield Interchange Project by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). This $676 million project involves not only the aforementioned junction, but also the Interstate 95 roadway and interchanges to the south, including those with Virginia State Secondary 644, Old Keene Mill Road, and Franconia Road. Begun March 1999, the project is broken into seven phases, the first of two are already complete. The middle phases focusing on the Interstate 95/395/495 junction itself began November 2000 and September 2001 respectively. Work on the final phases began in 2003, and the entire project was complete in 2007. The roadwork will effect over 430,000 vehicles per day (vpd).2

    The phases of Interstate 95 construction in northern Virginia are as follows:2

    • I - Completed in August of 1996 was the addition of a fourth southbound lane to Interstate 95 between Springfield and Newington. Construction of an Exit 169 ramp of Interstate 95 north to Spring Mall Drive, coincides with the completion Franconia-Springfield Metro Center. The facility opened June 1998.
    • II & III - Between March 1999 and November 2001, construction resulted in the rebuilding of the Interstate 95/Virginia State Secondary 644 interchange. A high-rise overpass for Franconia Road between Interstate 95 to east of Frontier Drive was also built.
    • IV - Road work that began November of 2000 sees the construction of a direct bridge between the Capital Beltway west to Interstate 95 south and the relocation of the travel lanes of Interstate 495 eastbound through the same interchange. These aspects of the overall project was completed in late 2004.
    • V - Also underway at the present time, work entails improvements to the Hemming Avenue junction with Interstate 495 and the ramp from Interstate 395 south to Interstate 495 west. Work began September 2001 and was completed by late 2003.
    • VI & VII - This phase began in October-November 2003, this aspect of the project resulted in the completion of the Interstate 95 northbound roadway alterations, including remaining local and through traffic ramps and HOV lanes. The Commonwealth Transportation Board awarded a $100 million contract for this phase on September 17, 2003. The project was completed in 2007.6
    • VIII - HOV connections between Interstate 95 and 495. While the right-of-way has already been acquired, VDOT now includes this aspect of the Springfield Interchange project apart of the future Capital Beltway Project. These plans are contingent upon the approval of that plan and the implementation of HOV lanes to Interstate 495.

    Please refer to SpringfieldInterchange.com for construction advisories, photos, and additional pertinent information.

    The second project effecting Interstate 95 in metro D.C. is the Woodrow Wilson Bridge replacement project for the Potomac River crossing. The current span, opened to traffic on December 28, 1961, originally carried four lanes with a capacity of 75,000 vpd. After just eight years, the crossing reached capacity. The growth of the area and increase in through-traffic has overriden the bridge with up to 200,000 vpd.3 Based upon this increasing demand, improvements have been considered since the 1980s. An expansion occurred to bring the bridge up to six lanes in width, but this is simply not enough for the overwhelming demand. Thus a new Potomac River bridge was planned and built. The first span (serving the outer loop) opened to traffic on June 10, 2006; the second span (serving the inner loop) opened on May 15, 2008. Remaining construction of the bridge and approaches continued through 2009, with the Telegraph Road interchange planned for completion by 2013.

    The new Woodrow Wilson Bridge rises 20-feet higher than its predecessor. The 70-foot draw bridge results in 70% fewer bridge openings than the 1961-span, bringing the total traffic interruptions down from a previous 260 per year to 65 per year. The new bridge increased the Capital Beltway capacity from six to ten lanes across the Potomac River utilizing an Express/Local lane configuration. Further expansion utilizing the wide shoulders may be implemented with the possibility of HOV/Express Bus lanes or rail transit lines on the facility.3

    Construction on the creation of 17 pier supports for the bridge started May 2001 and was completed in July 2003. This $125 million project followed a $15 million dredging project completed February 2001. For the draw span, $186 million of work commenced in February 2003 on the twin bridges (Inner and Outer Loops). On the Maryland side, construction of the $191 million element of the project began June of 2003.4

    Also a part of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge project was the improvement to surrounding interchanges between the bridge and the sprawling Springfield Interchange. At the southern terminus interchange of Interstate 295 and the Maryland 210 connector, new overpasses for Interstate 295/Maryland 210 were constructed. Additionally the "s-curve" ramps involved with the junction were replaced with longer bridges to compensate for the wider beltway mainline. These projects began December 2001 and were complete by early 2004. $52 million in funding was involved. Another element of this project was the creation of access ramps from the Outer Loop to/from the National Harbor development. This coincides with the widening of the Outer Loop roadway to accommodate the new bridge and interim alignment shifts related to construction. This $45 million project involved the creation of 11 new bridges and six retaining walls. Road work ran from December 2002 to mid 2006. U.S. 1 interchange work entailed the creation of a new Washington Street overpass and beltway improvements in preparation for the new bridge to the east. Over $130 million in funds were allocated for this segment of the project. Another element to the overall work was the $1.5 million Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) contract. Began November 2002, this saw the installation of Variable Message Signs (VMS) throughout the project area through to late 2003.4

    Another project underway along Interstate 95 in the state of Virginia is the installation of HOT lanes--the acronym HOT means High Occupancy Toll. As part of Virginia's Public-Private Transportation Act, a $1 billion project affects 29.4 miles of Interstate 95, from Garrisonville Road to Duke Street in Alexandria. This includes the existing reversible HOV-3 roadway from south of Exit 152 (VA-234) to the Springfield Interchange (I-395/495), where tolls will be implemented during the process.

    Groundbreaking took place on August 7, 201228 with work expected to run through December 2014. Broken into four segments, the portion between Prince William Parkway (VA-294) and Edsall Road (SSR 648) (Segments 3 and 4) will expand from two to three lanes. Segment 2 extends the existing HOV roadway southward 0.5 miles beyond Dumfries Road. Segment 1 builds two new resersible lanes 8.3 miles to Garrisonville Road in Stafford County. Find details on the work and a FAQ at the 95 ExpressLanes web site.

    An earlier plan for HOT lane construction sought to extend the existing reversible HOV roadway southward to milepost 133 in Frederick, with a potential completion by March 2009.10

    Maryland

    In the state of Maryland, the Maryland Transportation Authority has authorized a toll increase on the Susquehanna River spans of Interstate 95 and U.S. 40 and the Baltimore Harbor crossings of Interstates 95, 695, and 895 to generate $100 million a year for highway improvements along the Interstate 95 corridor. Planned for Interstate 95 is a widening from eight to twelve lanes between the Baltimore city line and the White Marsh Boulevard (Maryland 43) interchange east of the city. Construction will begin on this ambitious project in 2006. The toll increases for the Susquehanna River Bridges are the first since 2001, bringing the northbound only toll from $4 to $5. The Baltimore Harbor tolls of $1 each will increase to $2, the first increase since 1985. Rates included in commuter discount programs will remain as they are.8

    Future Aspirations: Interstate 95 Northerly Extension?

    A grass roots organization in northern Maine is advocating a northerly extension for the East Coast's Main Street. During Summer of 2003, the group LEAD (Leaders Encouraging Aroostook Development) met with Maine Governor John E. Baldacci, members of the state legislature, and department of transportation Commissioner David Cole to discuss the freeway extension and other related issues. While 18 months behind schedule, the DOT is currently composing an environmental impact study for the potential corridor. LEAD members strongly support the idea, citing the economic vitality of Aroostook County as a major factor.7

    Tolls on Interstate 95 in North Carolina?

    An idea first tossed about in 2001, tolling Interstate 95 in North Carolina to help pay for its improvement again arose in Fall 2003. In October 2003, state officials sought federal permission to implement a toll system on Interstate 95 to help cover a $3 billion price tag to overhaul the route. A consultant indicated to state officials that installing toll barriers at 30-mile intervals along the 182 stretch of highway at $3 a car will cover an expansion of Interstate 95 from four to eight lanes statewide. $2.4 billion in funds generated in a 30 year time frame will cover the rebuilding project. The 1956 to 1980 constructed freeway is seeing a 2 to 3 percent increase in traffic each year.11

    If tolls are not used, the state may have to raise gas taxes or other fees to help cover the costs of the Interstate 95 widening. The toll plan itself, if approved, would not go into effect until 2013. With that stated, the plan is all but dead for now, as Governor Mike Easley in 2003 indicated that he does not support the idea of tolling Interstate 95. The Governor was reported as supporting the newly formed North Carolina Turnpike Authority, but not supporting the tolling of an existing facility such as Interstate 95. If the legislature were to revive the Interstate 95 toll idea, Easley has indicated that he will veto any such bill that reaches his desk.12

    Highway Guides

    Southern Terminus - U.S. 1 - Miami, Florida
    Perspective from Interstate 95 south
    We begin our coverage of southbound Interstate 95 after the massive stack interchange for Exit 3A, Junction Florida 836/Dolphin Expressway west and Exit 2D, Junction Interstate 395 east to Miami Beach. The next exit, which is shown here, is Exit 3B, N.W. 8th Street. Use the N.W. 8th Street exit to N.W. 5th Street east to Florida 886/Port Boulevard and the Port of Miami. Use this exit to the Orange Bowl (follow the signs to the south and west; the Orange Bowl is bounded by N.W. 14th Avenue on the east, N.W. 3rd Street on the south, N.W. 16th Avenue on the west, and N.W. 6th Street on the north). Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    The next exit along southbound Interstate 95 is Exit 1B, Junction U.S. 41, followed by Exits 2A-C to downtown Miami. This is the final overhead pull-through sign for southbound Interstate 95. Note the control city of Key Biscayne, which actually connects to Interstate 95 via Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    Southbound Interstate 95 reaches Exit 1B, Junction U.S. 41. Oddly, this exit occurs prior to Exits 2C-A because the offramp to U.S. 41 parallels Interstate 95 on a separate alignment from the mainline. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    Southbound Interstate 95 reaches Exit 1B, Junction U.S. 41. Oddly, this exit occurs prior to Exits 2C-A because the offramp to U.S. 41 parallels Interstate 95 on a separate alignment from the mainline. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    Entering the final mile of southbound Interstate 95, the penultimate exit is the ramp to Exit 2A, Junction Florida 970 (freeway spur) to downtown and Exit 2C, To Junction U.S. 1/Biscayne Boulevard departing to the left. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    The final mainline exit from Interstate 95 south is Exit 1A, Junction Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway southeast to Key Biscayne. The right lane becomes exit only for Florida 913. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    The final Interstate 95 mainline shield, posted just past the departure of the Florida 970 ramps. This is the 1,455th shield of Interstate 95 south... just kidding, who knows the actual number of Interstate 95 mainline shields? The final mainline exit departs ahead for Exit 1A, Junction Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway southeast to Key Biscayne (note prior signage also shows S.W. 25th Road). Note the changes in signage from a roadside sign to an overhead sign between 2003 and 2006. Photos taken by Justin Cozart (06/03) and Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Use Exit 1A, Junction Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway southeast to the Miami Seaquarium, Miami Planetarium, Key Biscayne, Crandon Park, and Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park. The southern tip of Key Biscayne (the island) is known as Cape Florida. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Southbound Interstate 95 reaches Exit 1A, Junction Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway. The right two lanes exit here, while the left two lanes carry the remnants of Interstate 95 south to meet U.S. 1. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    The final one-half mile of southbound Interstate 95 is only two lanes wide. This sign bridge advises motorists of the upcoming junction with U.S. 1. There are no remaining off-ramps at this point of Interstate 95 south. Prior to 2001, the former guide sign at the one-half mile sign bridge also proclaimed that Interstate 95 ended in one-half mile. This sign also showed a white on red U.S. 1 shield, a remnant of Florida's abandoned colored U.S. Highway shield scheme. The empty holes within the old sign are leftover from where yellow flashers had been. Photos taken by ALex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06) and Gene Janczynskyi (08/00).
    Immediately after the one-half mile advance sign warning of the merge with U.S. 1, this scene shows the configuration of the northbound and southbound lanes of Interstate 95 we approach the U.S. 1 interchange on southbound. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    The speed limit reduces to 45 mph in anticipation of the U.S. 1 merge on Interstate 95 south. Traffic defaults onto southbound U.S. 1 for Coral Gables, South Miami, Pinecrest, and ultimately Key West. The second photo shows the former signage that was present here prior to 2001. Holes are again present in this older sign for the yellow flashers that were removed before the sign itself was removed. From here, U.S. 1 travels 7.2 miles to the southwest of this junction to the southern terminus of Florida 826, the Palmetto Expressway. Photos taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06) and Gene Janczynskyi (08/00).
    Prior to the END Interstate 95 sign, this sign advises traffic bound for Coconut Grove (a community of Miami) to continue straight ahead (along U.S. 1 south). Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Interstate 95 ends sign, posted at the merge onto U.S. 1. U.S. 1 continues another 157 miles southward to its terminus at Key West. In the background is the first U.S. 1 reassurance shield Interstate 95 motorists encounter. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    Perspective from U.S. 1 south
    After Interstate 95 south merges with U.S. 1, this is the first southbound reassurance shield. U.S. 1, also known as Dixie Highway, angles southwest from here. It travels toward Coral Gables, the University of Miami, and Pinecrest. The highway is frequently congested even with four to six lanes. Intermittent traffic signals regulate the flow of traffic through this area. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (05/08/06).
    Perspective from U.S. 1 north
    U.S. 1 northbound as it prepares to split with the northbound beginning of Interstate 95. U.S. 1 at this point turns to the northeast along Brickell Avenue and straddles the west shore of Biscayne Bay. Interstate 95 meanwhile heads into downtown Miami. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Use U.S. 1 north to Junction Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway, Key Biscayne, Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, and downtown Miami. Through traffic for northern Miami and points north should use Interstate 95. The left lanes will transition to Interstate 95; the right lanes will follow U.S. 1/Brickell Avenue into downtown Miami. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Northbound U.S. 1 and northbound Interstate 95 split here. U.S. 1 at this point turns to the northeast along Brickell Avenue and straddles the west shore of Biscayne Bay. Interstate 95 meanwhile heads through and around downtown Miami. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Perspective from Interstate 95 north
    Interstate 95 takes the left two lanes onto a viaduct, while U.S. 1 turns northeast along Brickell Avenue. A pedestrian bridge crosses over both directions of traffic for both highways. Thus begins the northbound journey of the longest north-south Interstate highway: Interstate 95. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    The first northbound Interstate 95 shield was missing at the time this photo was taken. For about a half-mile, there are only two northbound lanes. However, more lanes are added as Interstate 95 passes through the Florida 970 and U.S. 41 interchanges. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Now crossing over the southbound lanes of U.S. 1 on a brief viaduct, the towers of downtown Miami come into view on northbound Interstate 95. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    A view of downtown Miami's financial district and condominiums dominate the northbound Interstate 95 view. Ongoing construction of new towers helps to change the view continuously. Signage for the first exit (Exit 1B, Junction U.S. 41) comes into view. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    The first exit along northbound Interstate 95 is Exit 1B, Junction U.S. 41. Use U.S. 41 (S.W. 7th Street) west to Little Havana and West Miami. To U.S. 441/Florida 7 north, use U.S. 41/S.W. 7th Street west about five blocks. To the east, U.S. 41 (S.W. 8th Street) travels a few blocks before ending at U.S. 1/Brickell Avenue. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Interstate 95 serves as the hurricane evacuation route. Use Interstate 95 north to designated shelters further north and inland. The freeway can be very congested during times of evacuation. From here, Interstate 95 travels north toward downtown, then north to Fort Lauderdale. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    U.S. 41, like U.S. 1, is a major north-south highway that travels from the deep reaches of Michigan all the way south to Miami. It used to continue east to Miami Beach, but it was truncated in 2000 to end at U.S. 1 in downtown Miami. U.S. 1 also begins in the far northern edges (in Maine), and finds its way to South Florida. Unlike U.S. 41, U.S. 1 continues southwest to Key West. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Northbound Interstate 95 reaches Exit 1B, Junction U.S. 41 (S.W. 7th Street and S.W. 8th Street one-way couplet). Note that the freeway is now three lanes wide (after incoming traffic from Florida 913/Rickenbacker Causeway merges onto northbound Interstate 95). The next exit is Exit 2A, Junction Florida 970 freeway spur east to U.S. 1/Biscayne Boulevard. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Interstate 95 prepares to cross the Miami River, hence the tall viaduct and bridge that elevate the freeway high above navigable waters. Note that a fourth lane joins northbound Interstate 95 with an incoming ramp from the left; this traffic is coming from U.S. 41. The next exit is Exit 2A, Junction Florida 970 (signed as To U.S. 1, Biscayne Boulevard). Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Northbound Interstate 95 reaches Exit 2A, Junction Florida 970 east to U.S. 1/Biscayne Boulevard. The next exit is Exit 2B, N.W. 2nd Street to the sports arenas (American Airlines Arena and Miami Arena). This is the first pull-through sign for Interstate 95 on northbound. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Interstate 95 north next reaches the exit-only offramp to Exit 2B, N.W. 2nd Street. The next set of exits involve the junction with Interstate 395 east and Florida 836/Dolphin Expressway west. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman and Justin Cozart (03/26/06).
    Northern Terminus - Canadian International Border - Houlton, Maine
    Perspective from Interstate 95 north
    This is the final Interstate 95 northbound reassurance shield, found between U.S. 1 and U.S. 2 in Houlton. Photo taken by Patrick Lilja (07/26/05).
    Nearing the final interchange of Interstate 95 northbound between Houlton and the International Border in Aroostook County, Maine. Interstate 95 transitions into New Brunswick 95 after the Canadian Customs Station. New Brunswick 95 provides a freeway connection to Trans Canada Highway 2 and its freeway bypass of Woodstock. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    Motorists not destined for Canada must depart Interstate 95 via Exit 305. Exit 305 constitutes a trumpet interchange with U.S. 2's eastern terminus at Airport Road and Houlton International Airport. Unfortunately there is no U-turn ramp in place beyond the interchange like there is at California crossings into Mexico. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    Exit 305 departs Interstate 95 northbound for U.S. 2 (Airport Road / Military Street) west. U.S. 2 turns west onto Military Street from Airport Road adjacent to the freeway interchange. Airport Road leads south to Houlton International Airport and its Industrial Park. Military Street heads west 2.5 miles into downtown Houlton. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    The Interstate 95 mainline slows to a 25 MPH speed limit in anticipation of the Canadian Customs Station. The facility lies just east of Exit 305. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    Ascending the Exit 305 off-ramp to U.S. 2 (Airport Road) east. Airport Road ends at the north end of the interchange and its on-ramp to Interstate 95 south. U.S. 1 (North Street) meets Interstate 95 at the next exit to the west. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    End Northbound Interstate 95 shield marker posted near the Port of Entry for passage into Canada. The sign is visible from U.S. 2 (Airport Road) at Exit 305, but to get an up close look involves passing through customs into Canada. New Brunswick 95 continues the freeway east nine miles to Woodstock and junction Trans Canada Highway 2. Photo taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    As Northbound Interstate 95 transitions into New Brunswick 95, the freeway passes from the Eastern Time Zone into Atlantic Time Zone. Photo taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    Perspective from Interstate 95 south
    Begin Southbound Interstate 95 shield assembly posted as the freeway reaches the Port of Entry for passage into the United States. Photos taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    Welcome to Maine signage along Southbound Interstate 95 near the Port of Entry and Customs Station. The sign lies within the trumpet interchange (Exit 305) at U.S. 2 (Airport Road). Photo taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    The first of many Interstate 95 reassurance shields posted along its 1,920-mile routing from Houlton to Miami. However of all the shields posted along Interstate 95, this entry likely sees the least amount of cars and trucks per day. Photos taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    Southbound Interstate 95 milepost 300 near the northern terminus. This style of milepost is very common along Interstate Highways in Maine, and each shield on the milepost features the state name. Photo taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    Mileage sign along Southbound Interstate 95, two miles to Houlton and 120 miles to Bangor, the next major city along the route. Photo taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    Perspective from U.S. 2 east
    U.S. 2 (Military Street / Airport Road) leaves Houlton en route to Houlton International Airport and the final Interstate 95 interchange. The federal highway concludes at the trumpet interchange with Interstate 95. Border Lane spurs east from U.S. 2 to an end at the International Border with Canada. The roadway was likely original U.S. 2 prior to the construction of Interstate 95. Photo taken by Alex Nitzman & Carter Buchanan (06/27/05).
    A closer view of the Interstate 95 & U.S. 2 shield assembly posted at the northbound ramp to Canada. Interstate 95 transitions into New Brunswick 95, an east-west freeway leading to Trans Canada Highway 2 at Woodstock. Photo taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    Perspective from Trans Canada 2 in New Brunswick
    Westbound Trans Canada 2 approaching Junction New Brunswick 95 (two kilometers), which leads west into the United States to connect to the northern terminus of Interstate 95 in Maine. Photos taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).
    Westbound Trans Canada 2 at Junction New Brunswick 95, which leads west into the United States to connect to the northern terminus of Interstate 95 in Maine. Photos taken by Jeff Royston (12/02).

    Sources:

    1. I-95 Widening. SCDOT.
    2. "Springfield Interchange Improvement Project - Fact Sheet." VDOT.
    3. The Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project. VDOT.
    4. "Project Overview - Woodrow Wilson Project." VDOT.
    5. Metts, Mitchell (SCDOT)
    6. Kozel, Scott. "Springfield Interchange Improvement Project - Final Phase to Begin." Online posting, misc.transport.road, September 23, 2003.
    7. "LEAD to receive update on I-95 extension." Bangor Daily News, September 16, 2003.
    8. "Despite wear, state says I-95 toll not in works." The Herald, South Carolina October 26, 2003.
    9. "Higher tolls get initial OK." The Baltimore Sun, September 30, 2003.
    10. "HOT plans for 95" The Free Lance-Star (Fredicksburg, VA) October 11, 2003.
    11. "Support for I-95 tolls in N.C. should increase." Raleigh News & Observer,November 6, 2003.
    12. "Easley, Tippett: Agree To Disagree?" WRAL-TV Raleigh, November 18, 2003.
    13. Jason (gps_man2003). "Re: I-95 section from Ft Pierce to PGA BLVD," Online posting, Yahoo! Groups FL Roads, November 13, 2003.
    14. Kozel, Scott. "Re: [seroads] VDOT criticizes I81 plans." Online posting, Yahoo! Groups Southeast Roads and Transport , November 18, 2003. See also Mr. Kozel's outstanding History of Richmond's Interstate & Expressway System.
    15. "Interstate I-95 Redesignation & Re-numbering Information," Maine Department of Transportation.
    16. Divided Highways: Building the Interstate Highways, Transforming American Life in 1997 by Tom Lewis, Viking Penguin/Penguin Books, page 197.
    17. Florida's Turnpike: About Us - official site
    18. Kozel, Scott: "Re: Exit Letters," Online posting to Misc.Transport.Road newsgroup, 12/12/04; see also Mr. Kozel's outstanding Roads to the Future: Interstate 295 and Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike page
    19. John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway fact sheet (MDTA) - official site
    20. New Jersey Turnpike Fact Book - official site
    21. Connecticut Turnpike by NYCRoads.com (Steve Anderson)
    22. Blue Star (New Hampshire) Turnpike - official site
    23. About the Maine Turnpike - official site
    24. Florida's Interstates: A Half-Century of Progress (official Florida Department of Transportation site)
    25. Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Eisenhower Interstate Highway System: Previous Interstate Facts of the Day by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).
    26. Maine's Interstate System: An Investment in Safety, Mobility, and Prosperity by Maine Department of Transportation
    27. Toll lanes taking shape along I-95 by Larry Lebowitz, Miami Herald, June 30, 2008.
    28. "I-95 Express Lanes construction begins this week." The Washington Post, August 8, 2012.

    Page Updated November 19, 2012.

  •  
    Mileage

    State Florida
    Mileage 382.15
    Cities Miami, Hollywood, Fort Lauderdale, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Fort Pierce, Melbourne, Titusville, Daytona Beach, Jacksonville
    Junctions Interstate 395, Interstate 195, Florida's Turnpike, Interstate 595, Interstate 4, Future Interstate 795, Interstate 295, Interstate 10, Interstate 295
    State Georgia
    Mileage 112.00
    Cities Brunswick, Savannah
    Junctions Interstate 16
    State South Carolina
    Mileage 198.76
    Cities Walterboro, Florence, Dillon
    Junctions Interstate 26, Interstate 20, Future Interstate 73 Interstate 295
    State North Carolina
    Mileage 181.71
    Cities Lumberton, Fayetteville, Roanoke Rapids
    Junctions Future Interstate 74, Interstate 40
    State Virginia
    Mileage 178.73
    Cities Emporia, Petersburg, Richmond, Fredericksburg, Alexandria, Arlington
    Junctions Interstate 295, Interstate 85, Interstate 64, Interstate 64/Interstate 295, Interstate 395/Interstate 495
    State District of Columbia
    Mileage 0.11
    Cities Washington
    Junctions None
    State Maryland
    Mileage 110.01
    Cities Suitland, New Carollton, Greenbelt, Laurel, Baltimore, Aberdeen, Havre de Grace
    Junctions Interstate 295, Interstate 595, Interstate 495, Interstate 895, Interstate 195, Interstate 695, Interstate 395, Interstate 895, Interstate 895, Interstate 695
    State Delaware
    Mileage 23.43
    Cities Newark, Wilmington
    Junctions Interstate 295, Interstate 495, Interstate 495
    State Pennsylvania*
    Mileage 51.08
    Cities Chester, Philadelphia
    Junctions Interstate 476, Interstate 76, Interstate 676, Interstate 276/Pennsylvania Turnpike, Future Interstate 295
    State New Jersey**
    Mileage 97.76
    Cities New Brunswick, Elizabeth, Newark, North Bergen
    Junctions Interstate 295, New Jersey Turnpike, Interstate 195, Interstate 287, Interstate 278, Interstate 78, Interstate 280, Interstate 80
    State New York
    Mileage 23.50
    Cities New York City, New Rochelle
    Junctions Interstate 87, Interstate 895, Interstate 278, Interstate 678/Interstate 295, Interstate 695
    State Connecticut
    Mileage 111.57
    Cities Greenwich, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport, New Haven, New London
    Junctions Interstate 91, Interstate 395
    State Rhode Island
    Mileage 42.36
    Cities Warwick, Cranston, Providence, Pawtucket
    Junctions Interstate 295, Interstate 195
    State Massachusetts
    Mileage 91.95
    Cities Attleboro, Boston, Needham, Lexington, Woburn, Danvers
    Junctions Interstate 295, Interstate 495, Interstate 93, Interstate 90, Interstate 93, Interstate 495
    State New Hampshire
    Mileage 16.11
    Cities Portsmouth
    Junctions None
    State Maine
    Mileage 298.51***
    Cities Kittery, Portland, Brunswick, Augusta, Waterville, Bangor, Houlton
    Junctions Interstate 195, Interstate 295, Interstate 495, Interstate 395
    TOTAL 1,919.74
    * NOTE: New Jersey mileage is measured from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey State Line near the future terminus at Florence, New Jersey via the New Jersey Turnpike to New York.
    ** NOTE: Pennsylvania mileage is measured to the Pennsylvania-New Jersey State Line at Trenton. Completion of new interchange with Interstate 276 north of Philadelphia will make the ending terminus near Florence, New Jersey. The remaining section of Interstate 95 north of this interchange will be commissioned as an extension of Interstate 295.
    *** NOTE: Maine mileage is based on the October 31, 2002, route log and does not incorporate mileage changes as a result of the realignment of Interstate 495 in Maine on January 5, 2004. Once actual mileage figures are available, we will update this entry.
    Source: October 31, 2002 Interstate Route Log and Finders List
    Interstate 95 Annual Average Daily Traffic

    State Location AADT Composite Year
    Florida Miami 260,000 2002
    Florida Fort Lauderdale 298,000 2002
    Florida West Palm Beach 162,000 2002
    Florida Scottsmoor 28,500 2002
    Florida Jacksonville 168,000 2002
    Virginia N of Emporia 26,000 2002
    Virginia Petersburg 88,000 2002
    Virginia Richmond 141,000 2002
    Virginia Fredericksburg 140,000 2002
    Virginia Springfield 245,000 2002
    Virginia Alexandria 141,000 2002
    Maryland Greenbelt (Metro Washington) 250,325 2002
    Maryland Laurel 201,425 2002
    Maryland Baltimore 189,175 2002
    Maryland Elkton 61,750 2002
    Delaware Newark 199,677 2002
    Delaware Wilmington 89,327 2002
    Delaware Claymont 53,850 2002
    Pennsylvania Prospect Park 165,000 2002
    Pennsylvania Philadelphia 169,000 2002
    Pennsylvania Scudders Falls Bridge 47,000 2002
    New York George Washington Bridge 299,600 2002
    New York Bronx 163,900 2002
    New York New Rochelle 117,500 2002
    New York Rye 82,000 2002
    Rhode Island Hopkinton 44,400 2002
    Rhode Island Providence 261,000 2002
    Massachusetts Attleboro 112,619 2002
    Massachusetts Dedham 156,308 1999
    Massachusetts Lincoln 180,605 2000
    Massachusetts Peabody 31,000 1998
    New Hampshire Seabrook 86,737 2002
    New Hampshire Portsmouth 97,000 2002
    Maine Kittery 54,120 2000
    Maine Augusta 29,260 2001
    Maine Bangor 45,030 2001
    Maine Houlton 1,880 2001
    Source: Florida Traffic Information 2002 CD-Rom
    Virginia Department of Transportation 2002 AADT
    2002 AADTS Report (Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration - Highway Information Services Division)
    Traffic Summary 2002 (DelDOT)
    NYSDOT 2002 Traffic Volume Report
    Traffic Flow Map 2002 (Rhode Island Department of Transportation)
    Mass Highway Traffic Volume Counts (2002)
    Traffic Volume Report 2002 (NHDOT)
    Traffic Volumes Count 2001 Annual Report (MEDOT)
    Complete Interstate 95 AADT data.

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