Within Rochester, initial plans for Interstate 390 took the freeway north from the Rochester Outer Loop (I-590) directly to the Rochester Inner Loop (I-490). The proposed alignment of I-390 followed the Genesee River northward from a portion of the University of Rochester campus to neighborhood areas south of central business district. While ramps to the Genesee Expressway were added from the Inner Loop at Downtown, growing community opposition halted additional construction.3
Ultimately the Genesee Expressway project was dropped, with I-390 rerouted over the southwest leg of the Outer Loop in place of I-590. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) approved the renumbering of Interstate 590 west from the Genesee Expressway to I-490 as I-390 on June 25, 1979. The Outer Loop between NY 383 and Winton Road was finished in December 1980, followed by completion of the route from NY 104 to Lake Ontario State Parkway in 1984. The action included designating the previously unnumbered Outer Loop north to Lake Ontario State Parkway as part of Interstate 390. Despite that, the freeway north of I-490 was instead signed as New York Route 390.
Started in 2016, the I-390/I-490 Interchange Improvement Project made a number of improvements at the exchange joining I-490 with I-390/NY 390 at the town of Gates. Completed in Summer 2018, work on Phase One replaced the NY 31 (Lyell Avenue) bridge over NY 390 with a wider span. Phase Two work through late 2019 rehabilitated bridges along NY 390 over Erie Canal, realigned the entrance ramp from NY 31 onto NY 390 northbound, and added lane capacity. Phase Three constructed a new roadway for NY 390/I-390 southbound through the exchange with I-490. Opened to traffic on September 17, 2021, the flyover eliminated left exit ramps by repurposing the former roadway for NY 390/I-390 south into a collector distributor roadway. Completed by the end of 2021, Phase Four construction widened NY 31 (Lyell Avenue) between NY 390 and Howard Road.4 The $172.8 million project garnered recognition by the American Public Works Association for Transportation Projects Greater on March 25, 2022.5